Endoscopy is also a minimally invasive procedure for which is mostly used for examining or viewing an internal organ. It is performed with an ‘endoscope’ which is a thin, flexible tube with a high-resolution camera at the front accompanied by a light source. The fact is, endoscope in the visualizing tool used during Laparoscopy, and any minimally invasive procedure which requires internal visualization uses the same.

Depending on the part or organ to be treated, endoscopy is used in different types, and the procedure is named differently as well. For example, when the endoscope is inserted in the abdomen or pelvic region, the procedure is called ‘laparoscopy’; if it is inserted to treat bone joints, it is called ‘arthroscopy’; this way, currently, there are 13 different types of endoscopies.

Why is endoscopy performed?

The purpose of endoscopy is usually limited to:

  • Investigating an internal organ to look for the cause of a disorder.
  • Confirming the existence or analysis of a disorder within an organ.
  • Viewing an organ or a part while performing a keyhole surgery
  • Extracting microscopic tissue samples for diagnosis
  • In rare cases, for performing minor surgical treatments like cauterizing a blood vessel or removing a polyp.

Like every other medical technology, endoscopy is also evolving. The modern capsule endoscopy uses a capsule-size wireless camera that can be swallowed. As it moves down the digestive tract, it captures and transfers high-resolution images at high-speed.


Laparoscopic surgery is a modern technique for performing minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) in the abdomen and pelvic regions. It was developed as a better alternative to traditional open surgery. Unlike an open surgery which requires a single large incision for treatment, a laparoscopy procedure is performed through 0.5 to 1 cm small, keyhole-size incisions without any large incision. Hence, over the past ten years, it has earned other names such as ‘bandaid surgery’ and ‘keyhole surgery.’ Initially, it was only used for performing gynecologic and gall-bladder surgeries, but as it evolved, it was also considered suitable for treating abdominal hernias, and other abdominal parts.

The instruments used in Laparoscopy include:


It is a thin hollow tube that consists of a high-res camera at the front tip along with a high-intensity light source. When inserted inside the body, the light source helps the camera to capture and transmit a live video feed to an external monitor.

Trocar (Trochar):

It is a tube-shaped surgical tool used to create a passage for other tools. It is built with an ‘obturator’ which is a metallic or plastic tool with a sharpened or non-bladed tip inside a hollow tube called a ‘cannula’ and a protective seal. A trocar acts as a portal for other tools such as graspers, scissors, staplers, etc. and allows the insertion or removal of elements.

How is Laparoscopy performed?
  • Most laparoscopic procedures and performed under general anaesthesia. However, for relatively minor surgeries, a local anaesthetic can also be used.
  • The number of incisions will vary depending on the number of instruments that would be required for a particular surgery.
  • Usually, three to four incisions of 0.5 to 1 cm are made around the area to be treated. Each incision is known as a ‘port’.
  • In rare cases, the surgeon may make an incision for inserting a hand. In such cases, the surgery is known as ‘Hand-assisted Laparoscopy.’
  • In rare cases, the surgeon may make an incision for inserting a hand. In such cases, the surgery is known as ‘Hand-assisted Laparoscopy.’
  • The trocars are inserted through the incisions to create an access route to the part to be treated.
  • Then, the surgeon will inflate the surrounding area with carbon dioxide gas through one of the trocars to easily distinguish different parts.
  • The laparoscope will be inserted through another cannula, and a visual feed on the internal area will be established.
  • Now, the surgeon will use different tools to perform the surgery or in case of a biopsy, a tissue sample will be retrieved.
  • The trocars will be removed, and the incisions will be closed with sutures, surgical tapes or even bandaids accordingly.

At Lifepoint, our team of surgeons uses a range of modernized MIS tools and devices to provide the best laparoscopic hernia treatment in Pune.